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More than a decade in the past, Darii Garam, 76, moved to Ulaanbaatar along with her kids so they may go to high school and discover work past herding animals within the countryside. Now, the air pollution, set to worsen within the approaching winter, is attending to her.

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“Even simply going exterior for a second, opening your door, your property fills with smoke, your garments, all the pieces smells prefer it,” she says shifting round her ger, a spacious and neatly saved conventional Mongolian yurt, to make tea.

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Darii lives on the outskirts of Ulaanbaatar, an space generally known as the ger district or generally, affectionately, the “g district”, the place rural migrants have collected during the last 20 years. Right here, gers and homes constructed out of wooden and different scrap materials creep up the hills that field in Ulaanbaatar. Each winter, as many as 220,000 households burn coal to remain heat. When households can’t afford coal they often burn tyres and different scraps.

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Darii Garam inside her ger in Ulaanbaatar



Darii Garam inside her ger in Ulaanbaatar {Photograph}: Byamba-Ochir/MPA for the Guardian

The hospitals are packed each winter, as 1000’s of kids fall sick. Visibility is so dangerous that two folks may be strolling hand in hand and never have the ability to see one another. Air air pollution, or “smoke” because the residents name it, usually reaches a number of occasions that of Beijing or Delhi.

“I needed extra for my kids however the air is prohibitive,” Darii says. “I’ve by no means seen air air pollution like this earlier than… The meals, air pollution, all the pieces, is de facto dangerous in Ulaanbaatar.”

Mongolia’s rural residents have flooded the capital seeking a greater life. Now, as air pollution worsens, officers and residents are on the lookout for methods to lure folks again to the countryside.

‘If we don’t act, lets all die?’

Right this moment, Ulaanbaatar, a metropolis designed to accommodate about half 1,000,000 folks, holds 3 times this quantity – nearly half of the nation’s inhabitants of three million. Harsh winters have killed off tens of millions of livestock, forcing rural herders to the capital for work.

In 2004, nearly 70,000 folks moved from rural areas to town, equal to the inhabitants of a whole province. Since then as many as 45,000 have moved to the capital yearly. Most acquire within the ger district, an space officers say accounts for 80% of town’s air air pollution.

Beneath stress, the federal government determined final 12 months to ban migration, and lately prolonged the ban till 2020.

However excessive ranges of air pollution persist. About 15,000 folks marched in Ulaanbaatar, final 12 months protesting in opposition to the smog, in one of many nation’s largest demonstrations in years. In January, concentrations of PM2.5, breathable airborne particles, reached 3,320 micrograms per cubic meter, greater than 133 occasions the extent the World Well being Group deems protected.

“If we don’t act, lets all die burning no matter we wish?” requested Batbayasgalan Jantsan, town’s deputy mayor in control of inexperienced growth.

“What are the first rights of human being?” he asks. “The best to life. The best to a wholesome and protected surroundings. The state is obliged to supply that. The state has to guard its residents from environmental air pollution.”





Ulaanbaatar’s crowded ger district.



Ulaanbaatar’s crowded ger district. {Photograph}: Byamba-Ochir Byambasuren/MPA for the Guardian

Many say a migration ban alone shouldn’t be sufficient to resolve the air pollution downside. The true difficulty, consultants and locals say, is the stark divide between town and the countryside. Erdeneburen Ravjikh, the previous state secretary of Mongolia’s ministry of building and concrete growth, is on a mission to reverse this mass migration and repopulate the countryside.

‘I wish to return house’

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Rising up within the steppe of southern Mongolia, Erdeneburen thought rather a lot about easy methods to improve his rural hometown, Gurvansaikhan. There was no central heating, simply coal-fired steel stoves. Getting water required a mile-long trek, and the loos – wood stalls exterior – had been brutal in the course of the winter when temperatures fell to as little as -40C. “I used to freeze my arse off,” he says.

Most households lived in gers, and made their dwelling by elevating goats and promoting cashmere. Most of the folks Erdeneburen grew up with have left. He has additionally spent most of his grownup life exterior his hometown.





A herder family in rural Mongolia



A herder household in rural Mongolia. {Photograph}: Byamba-Ochir Byambasuren/MPA for the Guardian

“With a purpose to struggle air air pollution, we have to develop the agricultural areas, to make life good so folks keep,” he says. “The primary motive folks transfer to Ulaanbaatar is the standard of life – having correct heating, correct bathrooms, good water provide.”

After 4 years of fundraising, designing, and building, in the present day, Gurvansaikhan seems extra like a suburban neighbourhood dropped in the course of the Gobi desert. Paved roads reduce by the city, lined with solar-powered lamps. Residents share a wastewater remedy plant, a central heating system, and a water plant. Metropolis planners have even saved timber and shrubbery alive within the desert.

Officers on the metropolis, provincial and nationwide degree at the moment are engaged on a program to encourage residents emigrate from Ulaanbaatar to the provinces. “Creating jobs within the countryside is vital. That is what residents need. They are saying, ‘I wish to return house, however I want a job’,” Batbayasgalan stated.

Convincing folks to maneuver will take time. Greater than half of the nation’s GDP is generated in Ulaanbaatar. Final 12 months when unemployment within the metropolis was 8.7%, in rural areas it was as excessive as 10.7%.

Erdenechimeg Sanlig got here to the capital from the countryside six years in the past along with her kids, following their oldest daughter to school. She goes house yearly and all the time finds that not a lot has modified.

“Having animals is troublesome,” she says, sitting on a neatly made mattress inside their ger, a standard Mongolian yurt on the outskirts of Ulaanbaatar or tent. A tv performs the native information. Subsequent to a microwave, a cupboard holds a cup of toothbrushes and a roll of bathroom paper. A pink desk embellished with pictures of Disney princesses, for her three granddaughters, sits on the far aspect of the tent.

“Within the countryside our kids wouldn’t discover jobs. It’s higher right here to seek out jobs,” she says.

Nonetheless, more and more extra residents within the ger district are rising bored with life within the capital. Many complain in regards to the meals, the congestion, in addition to the air pollution. Earlier than the ban, migration to the capital had already been falling since 2014. Final 12 months, the variety of folks leaving Ulaanbaatar exceeded the quantity shifting in for the primary time because the 1990s.

Zolzaya Amgalan, 32, and her husband Myanganbaatar Tsend, 41, have been right here for the final three years with their son and daughter. When their son was a bit of greater than a 12 months outdated and struggling to stroll, a health care provider identified him with rickets, and suggested the household take a break within the countryside for a 12 months.

“The distinction was apparent. Within the countryside the air, meals, all the pieces is sweet for the children,” Zolzaya stated. “If there have been extra growth [in the countryside], in fact we’d transfer. Everybody would wish to transfer.”

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